The Americas

CRA CREDIT EDUCATION SERVICES: AN EXAMINATION OF CONSUMER IMPACTS 

Published: April 2016 

This study was designed to gauge the impact of a personalized credit education service from a national credit bureau on consumer understanding of credit reports and scores as measured by changes in credit scores and results from a participant survey. 

IMPLICATIONS OF SILOED AND SEGMENTED DATA IN CREDIT MARKETS 

Published: December 2015 

This white paper examines implications of fragmented data in credit markets, with particular focus on commercial / small business credit data and lending. 

RESEARCH CONSENSUS CONFIRMS BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE DATA 

Published: March 2015 

This paper reviews research carried out by score developers, CRAs, and other organizations on the impacts and potential of alternative data. 

A NEW PATHWAY TO FINANCIAL INCLUSION 

Published: June 2012 

This study compares results with data from2005/2006 and 2009/2010 credit reports to assess the consumer credit impact of including fully reported alternative data in credit reports. The data was selected to capture the period during which unemployment and late payments spiked. 

GENERAL RESPONSE TO CRITICISMS OF RECENT PERC REPORT: U.S. CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING: MEASURING ACCURACY AND DISPUTE IMPACTS 

Published: August 2011 

This is a general response to some misunderstandings and criticisms received regarding the recently released PERC report U.S. Consumer Credit Reporting: Measuring Accuracy and Dispute Impacts. 

U.S. CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTS: MEASURING ACCURACY AND DISPUTE IMPACTS 

Published: May 2011 

This report assesses the accuracy and quality of data collected and maintained by the three major nationwide Consumer Reporting Agencies (CRAs): Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. The study enabled consumers to review their credit reports and credit scores from one or more of the three CRAs, to identify potential inaccuracies, and to file disputes as necessary through the consumer dispute resolution process governed by the FCRA, and to report on their satisfaction with the dispute outcome. The impact of the disputes is measured through credit score and credit risk tier changes.  

THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF CREDIT INFORMATION SHARING 

Published: December 2010 

PERC was commissioned by the OECD to write a white paper on the economic value of personal financial data for a roundtable on the current environment for protecting privacy with a focus on the economic dimension. PERC’s white paper discusses how broader information-sharing backed by consumer rights has promoted efficiency and inclusion while maintaining and protecting confidentiality. It represents one of the first attempts to examine data sharing from the perspective of economic consequences. While the Fair Information Principles were disseminated 30 years ago, these guidelines have been understood largely in terms of privacy with little attention paid to the economic impacts of different information sharing systems. The white paper, relying on PERC research, as well as similar research by others, introduces policymakers to the effects of variations in financial information sharing. 

YOU SCORE YOU WIN: THE CONSEQUENCES OF GIVING CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE 

Published: July 2008 

A follow-up to PERC’s ground-breaking report on alternative data, this study examines the long-term effects of using non-traditional data in credit files using quantitative analysis. 

USING NON-TRADITIONAL DATA FOR UNDERWRITING LOANS TO THIN-FILE BORROWERS: EVIDENCE, TIPS, AND PRECAUTIONS 

Published: March 2008 

This paper, published in the Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions, demonstrates the value of non-traditional data as a powerful tool for consumer credit risk assessment while highlighting some of the potential risks and precautions that lenders need to think about before using these tools. 

GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE: INCREASING ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE MAINSTREAM CREDIT USING ALTERNATIVE DATA 

Published: December 2006 

PERC’s landmark study on bringing the estimated 35 to 54 million Americans outside the mainstream credit system into the credit fold, Give Credit Where Credit Is Due offers feasible market solutions involving “alternative” or non-traditional payment data, such as payment obligations such as rent, gas, electric, insurance, and other recurring obligations, to evaluate the risk profile of a potential borrower. 

GIVING UNDERSERVED CONSUMERS BETTER ACCESS TO THE CREDIT SYSTEM: THE PROMISE OF NON-TRADITIONAL DATA 

Published: July 2005 

PERC’s initial study on alternative data, Giving Underserved Consumers Better Access to the Credit System examines the likely win-win outcome if non-traditional data is included in credit files. 

THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT: ACCESS, EFFICIENCY AND OPPORTUNITY – PART II 

Published: September 2003 

This study confirms the findings of the initial FCRA study. It examines degradation in predictive power of a generic commercial scoring model, even when that model is “re-optimized” or“retooled” to account for the simulated data restrictions.  

THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT: ACCESS, EFFICIENCY, AND OPPORTUNITY 

Published: June 2003 

This is PERC’s landmark study on reauthorization of the Fair Credit Reporting Act. This study was the primary document used by Congress during the reauthorization. 

The Asia-Pacific/ Australia Region

THE IMPACTS OF INFORMATION SHARING ON COMPETITION IN LENDING MARKETS 

Published: October 2014 

This study examines how shifting to full file credit sharing systems might impact lender competition. It specifically explores whether bank concentration falls following a shift to full-file credit sharing. 

CREDIT BUREAUS IN EMERGING MARKETS: OVERVIEW OF OWNERSHIP & REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS 

Published: September 2014 

CREDIT IMPACTS OF MORE COMPREHENSIVE CREDIT REPORTING IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

Published: August 2012 

This report details the impacts of more comprehensive credit reporting in Australia and New Zealand. The report summarizes the results from a joint undertaking by PERC and Dun & Bradstreet Australasia using credit data from 1.8 million Australians. 

FINANCIAL INCLUSION THROUGH CREDIT REPORTING: HURDLES AND SOLUTIONS 

Published: April 2010 

This policy brief, a white paper produced for the APCC in April 2010, examines the logic of information sharing as it relates to financial inclusion and suggests some policy concerns and policy targets designed to promote a financial inclusion agenda. 

ROADMAP TO REFORM: LESSONS FROM AROUND THE WORLD TO GUIDE CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTING REFORM IN AUSTRALIA 

Published: October 2008 

PERC’s Roadmap to Reform details the benefits of comprehensive credit reporting, as well as detailing transitional challenges of switching to a full-file system.  

THE STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION SHARING AND CREDIT ACCESS: LESSONS FOR POLICY 

Published: July 2008 

This white-paper, produced for the Asia-Pacific Credit Coalition, outlines recent developments in the economic impact of information sharing in consumer credit markets. 

HOW SAFE AND SECURE IS IT? 

Published: January 2005 

This study is an assessment of personal data privacy and security in business process outsourcing firms in India. 

PRIVACY RIGHTS AND POLICY WRONGS: HOW DATA RESTRICTIONS CAN IMPAIR INFORMATION-LED DEVELOPMENT IN EMERGING MARKETS 

Published: January 2004 

This paper highlights a potential threat to a new model for economic development posed by European-style data privacy regulatory regimes.